Atmospheric Ozone (pages 402-403) Ozone Study Guide
Using mass balance model to understand CFCs and connection to ozone. (~ 2 hr Due Nov 20)
Observations of climate change
Simple Greenhouse Modeling
What influences Earth's Climate?
Climate Models Climate Models (Chapter 3 pages 71-78) Key terms: control case, boundary conditions, climate simulations, climate data output, General Circulation Models, Radiative Convective Models, sensitivity tests, time dependent models.
An 18 layer one-dimensional radiative convective model has 18 grid boxes, one for each of its 18 vertical layers. How many grid boxes does a two-dimensional energy balance climate model have if it has 18 vertical layers but also has 10 degree latitudinal resolution?
The two-dimensional energy balance climate model above is converted to a three dimensional general circulation model with 10 degree longitudinal resolution. How many grid boxes does this model have?
Parameterization of average conditions throughout a grid box in terms of key climate variables such as temperature, relative humidity, solar intensity, etc. is an essential aspect of all climate models. One can view parameterization of a climate variable such as cloud cover as an estimation of average conditions of that climate variable based on our knowledge of other relevant climate variables. For example, when the average cloud coverage throughout a grid box is assumed to depend on the temperature and relative humidity in some particular way we say that the average cloud cover is parameterized in terms of temperature and relative humidity. In the real world, cloud cover at a particular location depends on many things and the calculation of cloud cover at every location within a climate model grid box is impossible. Thus, parameterization of average cloud cover in terms of temperature and relative humidity is a simplification that must be made to make running a climate model even possible. All climate models parameterize (or estimate) the average effect over a model grid box of important components of the climate system such as albedo, soil properties, vegetation, evaporation, etc. in term of other related climate variables. At present there is no way to avoid this estimation process so the results of all climate model simulations should be viewed with caution.
Models, Observations, and future projections
Using mass balance model to understand carbon dioxide and connection to global warming. (~ 2 hr Due Dec 4)